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        關于特斯拉和比特幣,這里有一些新情報

        關于特斯拉和比特幣,這里有一些新情報

        Shawn Tully 2021年04月28日
        特斯拉有意下一場更大的賭注——就像當初以15億美元購入比特幣一樣,那一次,它們把比特幣的價格推到了前所未有的高度。

        比特幣(Bitcoin)和埃隆·馬斯克可以說是地球上最大的兩樁生意了。因此,當后面這位特斯拉公司(Tesla)的首席執行官在4月26日發布的第一季度財報中披露,該電動汽車制造商拋售了一部分于今年早些時候高調購入的比特幣、并獲益頗豐時,推特(Twitter)上炸開了鍋。比特幣懷疑論者、知名的博客作家,同時也是資訊網站Barstool Sports創始人的戴夫·波特諾伊抨擊馬斯克精心策劃了一場騙局。他在推特中說:“所以我這么理解對嗎?馬斯克炒高了比特幣,然后轉手把它拋了,狠狠賺了一筆?!北忍貛琶該?,馬斯克已經對他原來大力推廣的這種技術失去興致了。

        而馬斯克也不甘示弱,在推特上回擊了波特諾伊,并讓粉絲們放心:“不,你理解錯了。我沒有賣出自己的任何一枚比特幣。只是特斯拉出售了公司持倉的10%,這主要是為了證明比特幣的流動性,而不是為了要在財報上顯示出有現金入賬?!憋@然,這是馬斯克首次披露自己持有比特幣,并且證實將繼續持有。這兩則消息也得到了特斯拉首席財務官的印證,即特斯拉會長期持有比特幣。這就讓幣圈發燒友們歡呼雀躍,并進一步推動了從前一天就開始的牛市。消息發布后,比特幣在4月27日下午早些時候上漲了2%,至54,092美元。

        特斯拉在比特幣上賺了多少錢?

        自從特斯拉在2月8日宣布以15億美元的價格購入上萬枚比特幣以來,這家電動汽車制造商的收益一直是肉眼可見的豐厚。第一季度報告也向人們透露了更多細節,即特斯拉大約花了多少錢買幣、它們的資產負債表上還剩下多少比特幣,以及它們到底從這場豪賭中獲益多少。這些數字還揭示了一個讓人擔憂的事實:在第一季度,與比特幣的升值相比,特斯拉從銷售汽車和電池、提供軟件更新等服務中賺到的錢相形見絀——而這些才是它的基礎業務。

        通行的會計規則將數字貨幣劃為“無限期無形資產”類。如果在一個季度末,比特幣的價格低于該公司購入時的價格,則要記為“收益減少”,以反映虧了多少。但如果價格上漲,持有者也不能在財報上顯示這種升值。持倉的價值仍然要顯示為公司最初支付的金額,即“賬面價值”。

        第一季度財報里顯示出的巨額利潤也讓人們知曉了特斯拉這筆意外之財的大致規模。根據第5頁的注釋,特斯拉出售比特幣獲得了1.01億美元的“凈利潤”,記錄在財報的“資產重組與其他”一行中。在現金流報表上,出售比特幣的收益是2.72億美元。因此能夠得知,特斯拉購入比特幣的價格是1.01億美元,而這一買一賣就賺了1.71億美元,獲利59%。特斯拉的首席財務官扎克·科克霍恩在電話會議上表示,交易發生在“3月下旬”。

        比特幣的價格在3月的最后三周里一直趨于穩定,均價55,100美元。因此,從數字上看,特斯拉大約以該價格出售了4,800枚比特幣,達到2.72億美元的收益。我們也可以估算出特斯拉最初買入比特幣時的價格。由于它每賣出一個比特幣就能夠獲得59%的利潤,因此其原始成本必然在34,700美元左右。這樣的數字也很合理,接近于1月至2月初特斯拉購入時期的均價。這筆價值15億美元的投資大約買入了43,000枚比特幣。

        還有,售出比特幣的賬面價值,即帶來的回報收益為1.71億美元。因此,我們可以得知,原始投資的15億美元大約還剩下多少:15億美元減去1.71億美元,約合13.29億美元。我們就知道每枚比特幣購入時的價格約為34,700美元。

        結論就是:特斯拉仍然持有約38,300枚比特幣,價值13.29億美元。按照4月26日比特幣的價格54,100美元計算,特斯拉的資產共計20.7億美元。它原來持有的價值為7.41億美元。加上第一季度新入賬的1.01億美元,總收入為8.42億美元。

        這些數字都是近似值,但應該說接近全貌。在財報中,特斯拉顯示持有13.31億美元“數字貨幣”。這比上述按照“銷售所得-原始購買”計算的高出200萬美元。但是在電話會議上,柯克霍恩稱,特斯拉“將繼續從客戶的購車交易中積累比特幣?!瘪R斯克在2月發表的著名宣言中指出,特斯拉將接受比特幣來代替美元或人民幣,這很可能解釋了這200萬美元的差額。如果40個客戶從比特幣錢包中拿出51,000美元購買Model 3,或者是把比特幣存在里面,這些銷售額將能夠解釋特斯拉秘密擁有的200萬美元的額外收入。

        現在一個主要的擔心是:馬斯克和柯克霍恩都表示特斯拉出售了10%的股份。但上述數學計算表明,它在第一季度購買的比特幣數量略高于11%。所以很可能其中忽視了什么,或是馬斯克和柯克霍恩也只是給出了一個粗略的數字。

        馬斯克希望繼續持有比特幣,但特斯拉還會加倉嗎?

        在電話會議上,柯克霍恩談了很多比特幣的好處以及出售比特幣的原因。他宣稱:“埃隆和我一直在尋找一個把錢存起來之后不會立即用掉的場所,并想要獲得一定程度的回報,同時也保持流動性?!彼忉屨f,減持比特幣的理由部分是為了測試交易的難易程度,讓比特幣流動起來??驴嘶舳髡f:“我們對比特幣市場的流動性很滿意?!钡弥厮估嵙?.72億美元很有意思。美國最大的加密貨幣交易所Coinbase最近披露,每交易1美元的手續費平均為0.47%。按照這個比率,特斯拉為比特幣交易付出的手續費達到令人咋舌的100萬美元。

        柯克霍恩也證實了特斯拉對比特幣的承諾,就像馬斯克在推特上回應波特諾伊的那樣。這位首席財務官觀察到:“我們相信比特幣的長期價值。因此,我們打算將其作為長期資產持有,并繼續在客戶的購車交易中積累比特幣?!?/p>

        而柯克霍恩沒有說的是,特斯拉有意下一場更大的賭注——就像當初以15億美元購入比特幣一樣,那一次,它們把比特幣的價格推到了前所未有的高度。

        在第一季度,投機比特幣要比賣電動汽車更有利可圖

        2008年以來,特斯拉一直在造車,但交易比特幣只有一個季度。值得一提的是,它這三個月的做法更像一個比特幣投機者,而不是汽車制造商。第一季度,特斯拉公布了5.33億美元的稅前利潤。但這包括出售監管信貸的5.19億美元,而這項紅利很快就會消失;還有1.01億美元的比特幣大頭。減去出售汽車、電池和服務以外的收益,它虧損了8,700萬美元。

        除去1.01億美元的利潤,比特幣的暴漲讓它們的資產增值了超過7億美元。盡管發了這么大一筆財,但把特斯拉的資產與這筆波動性巨大的投資聯系在一起還是一個很不明智的決定,只會讓特斯拉本來就不明朗的盈利能力更加模糊。特斯拉的投資者最不需要的就是風險。相比買比特幣,馬斯克能夠用這筆多余的資金支付特別股息,并且讓股東決定是購買比特幣還是投到其他方面。馬斯克是一位杰出、魅力超凡的商業領袖,卻被困在比特幣的風險中騎虎難下。他應該回到原先的賽道上,繼續專注于眼前的道路,并堅持制造可以改變世界的車輛。(財富中文網)

        編譯:陳聰聰

        比特幣(Bitcoin)和埃隆·馬斯克可以說是地球上最大的兩樁生意了。因此,當后面這位特斯拉公司(Tesla)的首席執行官在4月26日發布的第一季度財報中披露,該電動汽車制造商拋售了一部分于今年早些時候高調購入的比特幣、并獲益頗豐時,推特(Twitter)上炸開了鍋。比特幣懷疑論者、知名的博客作家,同時也是資訊網站Barstool Sports創始人的戴夫·波特諾伊抨擊馬斯克精心策劃了一場騙局。他在推特中說:“所以我這么理解對嗎?馬斯克炒高了比特幣,然后轉手把它拋了,狠狠賺了一筆?!北忍貛琶該?,馬斯克已經對他原來大力推廣的這種技術失去興致了。

        而馬斯克也不甘示弱,在推特上回擊了波特諾伊,并讓粉絲們放心:“不,你理解錯了。我沒有賣出自己的任何一枚比特幣。只是特斯拉出售了公司持倉的10%,這主要是為了證明比特幣的流動性,而不是為了要在財報上顯示出有現金入賬?!憋@然,這是馬斯克首次披露自己持有比特幣,并且證實將繼續持有。這兩則消息也得到了特斯拉首席財務官的印證,即特斯拉會長期持有比特幣。這就讓幣圈發燒友們歡呼雀躍,并進一步推動了從前一天就開始的牛市。消息發布后,比特幣在4月27日下午早些時候上漲了2%,至54,092美元。

        特斯拉在比特幣上賺了多少錢?

        自從特斯拉在2月8日宣布以15億美元的價格購入上萬枚比特幣以來,這家電動汽車制造商的收益一直是肉眼可見的豐厚。第一季度報告也向人們透露了更多細節,即特斯拉大約花了多少錢買幣、它們的資產負債表上還剩下多少比特幣,以及它們到底從這場豪賭中獲益多少。這些數字還揭示了一個讓人擔憂的事實:在第一季度,與比特幣的升值相比,特斯拉從銷售汽車和電池、提供軟件更新等服務中賺到的錢相形見絀——而這些才是它的基礎業務。

        通行的會計規則將數字貨幣劃為“無限期無形資產”類。如果在一個季度末,比特幣的價格低于該公司購入時的價格,則要記為“收益減少”,以反映虧了多少。但如果價格上漲,持有者也不能在財報上顯示這種升值。持倉的價值仍然要顯示為公司最初支付的金額,即“賬面價值”。

        第一季度財報里顯示出的巨額利潤也讓人們知曉了特斯拉這筆意外之財的大致規模。根據第5頁的注釋,特斯拉出售比特幣獲得了1.01億美元的“凈利潤”,記錄在財報的“資產重組與其他”一行中。在現金流報表上,出售比特幣的收益是2.72億美元。因此能夠得知,特斯拉購入比特幣的價格是1.01億美元,而這一買一賣就賺了1.71億美元,獲利59%。特斯拉的首席財務官扎克·科克霍恩在電話會議上表示,交易發生在“3月下旬”。

        比特幣的價格在3月的最后三周里一直趨于穩定,均價55,100美元。因此,從數字上看,特斯拉大約以該價格出售了4,800枚比特幣,達到2.72億美元的收益。我們也可以估算出特斯拉最初買入比特幣時的價格。由于它每賣出一個比特幣就能夠獲得59%的利潤,因此其原始成本必然在34,700美元左右。這樣的數字也很合理,接近于1月至2月初特斯拉購入時期的均價。這筆價值15億美元的投資大約買入了43,000枚比特幣。

        還有,售出比特幣的賬面價值,即帶來的回報收益為1.71億美元。因此,我們可以得知,原始投資的15億美元大約還剩下多少:15億美元減去1.71億美元,約合13.29億美元。我們就知道每枚比特幣購入時的價格約為34,700美元。

        結論就是:特斯拉仍然持有約38,300枚比特幣,價值13.29億美元。按照4月26日比特幣的價格54,100美元計算,特斯拉的資產共計20.7億美元。它原來持有的價值為7.41億美元。加上第一季度新入賬的1.01億美元,總收入為8.42億美元。

        這些數字都是近似值,但應該說接近全貌。在財報中,特斯拉顯示持有13.31億美元“數字貨幣”。這比上述按照“銷售所得-原始購買”計算的高出200萬美元。但是在電話會議上,柯克霍恩稱,特斯拉“將繼續從客戶的購車交易中積累比特幣?!瘪R斯克在2月發表的著名宣言中指出,特斯拉將接受比特幣來代替美元或人民幣,這很可能解釋了這200萬美元的差額。如果40個客戶從比特幣錢包中拿出51,000美元購買Model 3,或者是把比特幣存在里面,這些銷售額將能夠解釋特斯拉秘密擁有的200萬美元的額外收入。

        現在一個主要的擔心是:馬斯克和柯克霍恩都表示特斯拉出售了10%的股份。但上述數學計算表明,它在第一季度購買的比特幣數量略高于11%。所以很可能其中忽視了什么,或是馬斯克和柯克霍恩也只是給出了一個粗略的數字。

        馬斯克希望繼續持有比特幣,但特斯拉還會加倉嗎?

        在電話會議上,柯克霍恩談了很多比特幣的好處以及出售比特幣的原因。他宣稱:“埃隆和我一直在尋找一個把錢存起來之后不會立即用掉的場所,并想要獲得一定程度的回報,同時也保持流動性?!彼忉屨f,減持比特幣的理由部分是為了測試交易的難易程度,讓比特幣流動起來??驴嘶舳髡f:“我們對比特幣市場的流動性很滿意?!钡弥厮估嵙?.72億美元很有意思。美國最大的加密貨幣交易所Coinbase最近披露,每交易1美元的手續費平均為0.47%。按照這個比率,特斯拉為比特幣交易付出的手續費達到令人咋舌的100萬美元。

        柯克霍恩也證實了特斯拉對比特幣的承諾,就像馬斯克在推特上回應波特諾伊的那樣。這位首席財務官觀察到:“我們相信比特幣的長期價值。因此,我們打算將其作為長期資產持有,并繼續在客戶的購車交易中積累比特幣?!?/p>

        而柯克霍恩沒有說的是,特斯拉有意下一場更大的賭注——就像當初以15億美元購入比特幣一樣,那一次,它們把比特幣的價格推到了前所未有的高度。

        在第一季度,投機比特幣要比賣電動汽車更有利可圖

        2008年以來,特斯拉一直在造車,但交易比特幣只有一個季度。值得一提的是,它這三個月的做法更像一個比特幣投機者,而不是汽車制造商。第一季度,特斯拉公布了5.33億美元的稅前利潤。但這包括出售監管信貸的5.19億美元,而這項紅利很快就會消失;還有1.01億美元的比特幣大頭。減去出售汽車、電池和服務以外的收益,它虧損了8,700萬美元。

        除去1.01億美元的利潤,比特幣的暴漲讓它們的資產增值了超過7億美元。盡管發了這么大一筆財,但把特斯拉的資產與這筆波動性巨大的投資聯系在一起還是一個很不明智的決定,只會讓特斯拉本來就不明朗的盈利能力更加模糊。特斯拉的投資者最不需要的就是風險。相比買比特幣,馬斯克能夠用這筆多余的資金支付特別股息,并且讓股東決定是購買比特幣還是投到其他方面。馬斯克是一位杰出、魅力超凡的商業領袖,卻被困在比特幣的風險中騎虎難下。他應該回到原先的賽道上,繼續專注于眼前的道路,并堅持制造可以改變世界的車輛。(財富中文網)

        編譯:陳聰聰

        They're arguably the two biggest business names on the planet: Bitcoin and Elon Musk. So when the Tesla CEO disclosed in the Q1 earnings release on April 26 that the EV-maker had booked a fat gain by selling part of the Bitcoin horde it famously amassed early this year, the Twitter-sphere erupted. Bitcoin skeptic Dave Portnoy, the celebrity blogger, ripped Musk for perpetrating a con. "So am I understanding this correctly? He pumps it. It goes up. Then he dumps it and makes a fortune," tweeted the founder of Barstool Sports. Bitcoin fans fretted that Musk was souring on the signature token he'd done so much to promote.

        Sword drawn, Musk riposted to foil Portnoy and reassure the loyalists. "No, you do not," he responded to Portnoy's tweet. "I have not sold any of my Bitcoin. Tesla sold 10% of its holdings essentially to prove liquidity of Bitcoin as an alternative to holding cash on the balance sheet." This was apparently the first time Musk disclosed that he himself owns Bitcoin. That news, and assurances that he's keeping all his coins, backed by the CFO's pledge that Tesla's a long-term holder, cheered enthusiasts and recharged the bull run that started the previous day. Following the release, Bitcoin rose 2% by early afternoon on April 27 to $54,092.

        How much has Tesla made on Bitcoin?

        Ever since Tesla announced its $1.5 billion Bitcoin purchase in the 10K, issued on February 8, it's been clear that the EV-maker's been harboring big gains. Still, the Q1 report provides new detail on the approximate price Tesla paid, how many coins remain on its balance sheet, and how much it's made on its big wager. The numbers also reveal a troubling truth: In the first quarter, the digital currency's appreciation dwarfs what Tesla earned in its bedrock business of selling cars and batteries, and providing software updates and other services.

        Accounting rules classify digital currencies as "indefinite-lived intangible assets." If at the end of a quarter, the price of Bitcoin falls below what the company paid, it's required to take an "impairment" charge reflecting the size of the hit. But if the price rises, the owner doesn't show that appreciation on the balance sheet. The holdings are still shown at the amount or "book value" the company originally paid.

        The big profit recorded in Q1 reveals the approximate size of the overall windfall. A note on page 5 discloses that Tesla booked a $101 million "positive impact" from the sale of Bitcoin, recorded in the 'Restructuring & Other' line on the income statement. The cash flow statement shows that the sale garnered proceeds of $272 million. Hence, we know that Tesla paid $171 million for Bitcoin it sold for $101 million more, clinching a 59% profit. On the conference call, CFO Zach Kirkhorn stated that the transaction happened "later in March."

        Bitcoin's price was uncharacteristically steady in the last three weeks of March, averaging $55,100. So the math suggests that Tesla sold around 4,800 Bitcoins at that price to raise the $272 million. We also can reckon what Tesla originally paid for its stake. Since it pocketed a 59% gain on every Bitcoin sold, its original cost must have been about $34,700. Makes sense. That's close to the average quote in the January to early February period that bookends Tesla's purchases. It appears that the $1.5 billion investment bought roughly 43,000 Bitcoin.

        Once again, the book value––or what it paid––for the tokens sold is $171 million. So we know the approximate balance-sheet number for what remains is the original investment of $1.5 billion, less the $171 million, or about $1.329 billion. We also know the approximate purchase price per coin of $34,700.

        Result: Tesla still holds around 38,300 Bitcoin that cost $1.329 billion. At Bitcoin's price of $54,100 on April 26, Tesla's trove is worth $2.07 billion. Tesla's gain on what it still owns is $741 million. Add the $101 million from the Q1 sale, and its total take is $842 million.

        These numbers are approximate, but present what should be close to the full picture. On its balance sheet, Tesla displays its "digital currency" holdings at $1.331 billion. That's $2 million more than the number I get from deducting the sale from its original purchases. But on the earnings call, Kirkhorn said that Tesla "continues to accumulate Bitcoin from transactions from our customers as they purchase vehicles." Musk's famous declaration in February that Tesla would accept the coins in lieu of dollars or yuan may well explain the $2 million discrepancy. If forty customers opened their Bitcoin wallets to buy or make deposits on $51,000 Model 3s, those sales would account for the extra $2 million-worth in Tesla's coffers.

        My main misgiving: Both Musk and Kirkhorn refer to selling 10% of Tesla's stake. My math shows it parted with just over 11% of the number of coins purchased in Q1. So it's possible I'm missing something, or that Musk and Kirkhorn were giving a ballpark figure.

        Musk wants to keep holding Bitcoin, but will Tesla buy more?

        On the conference call, Kirkhorn spoke extensively about Bitcoin's benefits, and why Tesla sold. "Elon and I were looking for a place to store cash that wasn't being immediately used, trying to get some level of return on this, but also preserve liquidity," he declared. The rationale for trimming its position, he explained, was in part to test the ease of buying and selling. Bitcoin passed in a walk. "We've been quite pleased with the liquidity in the Bitcoin market," said Kirkhorn. It would be interesting to know what commissions Tesla paid in reaping that $272 million. Coinbase, the largest U.S. crypto exchange, recently disclosed average fees of 0.47% on each dollar it handles in transactions. At that rate, Tesla would have paid a jaw-dropping $1 million to make the trade.

        Kirkhorn affirmed Tesla's commitment to Bitcoin, as did Musk in his Twitter jab at Portnoy. "We do believe in the long-term value of Bitcoin," observed the CFO. "So it's our intent to hold what we have long-term and to continue to accumulate Bitcoin from transactions from our customers as they purchase vehicles."

        What Kirkhorn didn't say is that Tesla has any intention of making more mega-bets like the $1.5 billion buy that helped propel the Bitcoin to never-before-seen prices.

        In Q1, speculating in Bitcoin was far more profitable than selling EVs

        Tesla's been producing autos since 2008, but it's only been trading Bitcoin for a single quarter. It's worth noting that during its maiden three months doing both, it fared much as a Bitcoin speculator than as a carmaker. In Q1, Tesla posted pre-tax profits of $533 million. But those earnings included $519 million in sales of regulatory credits, a boost that will soon disappear, as well as the $101 Bitcoin bonanza. Subtract those benefits outside selling cars, batteries and services, and it lost $87 million.

        Excluding the $101 million profit, its appreciation from the Bitcoin foray amounted to well over $700 million. Despite that bounty, the decision to tie Tesla's fortunes to an ultra-volatile investment was a poor one. Given the crypto's wild fluctuations, the big holding will only make Tesla's already uncertain profitability harder to forecast. What Tesla investors don't need more of is risk. Instead of gorging on Bitcoin, Musk could pay a special dividend with this excess cash, and let shareholders decide whether to buy Bitcoin or do something else with the cash. Musk is a brilliant, charismatic leader who is sidetracked on a Bitcoin misadventure. He should get back on the track, keep his eyes on the road, and stick to making vehicles that change the world.

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